How Often Should You Take Your Dog to the Vet?

How Often Should You Take Your Dog to the Vet?

Owning a dog requires a lot of patience, unconditional love, and responsibility. It can also require more money than you may think. Aside from dog food, serving bowls, collars, leashes, brushes, flea treatments, treats, and toys, you will have to factor in the cost of regular veterinary visits. When bringing a new furry friend into your home, it is important you consider all of the time and money it will take to keep your dog healthy and happy.

Young puppies need vaccinations and de-worming treatment as soon as they are a few weeks old. Like human children, puppies will receive a series of vaccinations over the first year of their lives. Viruses such as parvo are highly contagious and can quickly kill a very young dog. It’s important to be on time for all vaccinations if you don’t want to run the risk of losing your new companion to a preventable illness. Depending on where you get your puppy from, they may have some or all of their shots before you bring them home. Be sure to get their vaccination records from the breeder or shelter you are getting the puppy from so you know what they have received and when. This information will also be important to give to the puppy’s new veterinarian.

Whether you bring home a young or older dog, you should set up a veterinary visit as soon as possible for them. Not only can you make sure they are up-to-date on their vaccinations, but the vet can give them a wellness check and make sure they don’t have any surprise diseases or conditions you need to be aware of. Some dogs get very nervous in the vet’s office, so taking them early on and then maintaining a regular schedule of visits can keep them from getting too upset when they have to go in for an illness or emergency.

Aside from necessary vaccinations and the initial vet visit, it is a good idea to take your dog in for a wellness check at least once a year. The veterinarian can make sure teeth, gums, skin, fur, hair, and weight are healthy. They can also check for any illnesses or issues that may not be obviously apparent to you. There are also preventative care services that your dog can receive. Many veterinary offices provide teeth cleaning services which, while expensive, can keep you from having to deal with broken teeth and an infected mouth later on.

Once you set up with a regular vet, they will usually send out reminders throughout the year when it is time to bring your dog back in. The reminders should include what purpose the visit will be for. This will help you keep track of when your dog needs to be seen. It is also a good idea to keep all paperwork in a safe place so you can confirm when they have gone in the past, what services they received, and when they may need to see the veterinarian again.

How To Transport Goods Across the Country

How To Transport Goods Across the Country

If you’re looking to move goods across the country, several factors come into play. Shipping something within state lines is easy – it’s just a matter of contacting the local company and arranging for it to get there. However, when you want to ship out of state or outside the country, not only do you have to find a company that’s willing to do that, but you also have to take into consideration what route they’ll take and how much storage space your goods will need. If you are shipping a car, home appliance, or other large goods across the country, it’s vital to keep those items secure before and during transport. Use these tips to ensure a smooth and safe delivery.

Choose the right transport company

Though you can transport items on your own, hiring a professional freight company to do it is always a safer bet! It minimizes the risk of damage or loss and ensures proper paperwork and processes accompany the shipment. Ensure they have been in business for years and experience this kind of shipping (e.g., air freight).

Use high-quality packing materials

If you’re packing your goods on your own, make sure to use high-quality materials like these cardboard boxes and Bubble Wrap. This will ensure your items stay safe and secure during transport.

Check the weight

Make sure you know how much the goods weigh (in addition to dimensions) so you can estimate the cost of shipping across the country.

Ensure the goods aren’t too heavy to fit in the crate

A common mistake is to underestimate the weight. If you’re unsure, it’s best to notify the shipping company before checking out with them. Ask any questions, and they may give you a better estimate on costs (especially for larger items) which will save you money. This is especially important if your package isn’t shipped with an air cargo carrier due to size restrictions.

Carry your heavy items in a way to protect its corners

If your shipment is over a certain weight, it’s best to use something to protect the corners of the crate holding it. This can save you from unnecessary damage and make your freight company happier as well.

Measure and document dimensions of the load

There are two ways to measure large objects like heavy furniture – by stacking them up or using a tape measure. Whatever method you go with, make sure you take your pictures or make measurements and notes about the objects before sending them off. That way, there are no disputes when it comes time to loading.

Pack and protect easily-damaged goods

If you’re shipping heavy furniture, boxes of glassware, or other fragile items, use some padding for extra protection while in transit. This is especially important for large items like furniture because they can get banged around during transport.

Use proper labelling

Before you ship your items, make sure to label your packages clearly and correctly. Use the same care in labeling as you did packing, so there are no mistakes when it comes time to unload. You want the recipient to have no confusion about what’s inside the crate.

Conclusion

Transporting goods across the country is a task that needs to be taken seriously. The damage goods can incur during transport, or even worse, the loss of goods in transit can be detrimental if not fatal to your business. That’s why it’s so important to take precautions when shipping your products and to understand the laws that apply to how you ship them.

6 Important Reasons to Hire a Professional House Cleaning Service

6 Important Reasons to Hire a Professional House Cleaning Service

Many people enjoy having a professional cleaning service work in their homes. You will like how careful they are to make the whole house spotless. There are some important reasons and situations when you will want to use this service, and below are six of them.

1. You Can Have A Clean House When You Are Busy

If you are constantly busy with work, taking care of your family, or anything going on in your life, then you can ask for help. Your house might be the first thing you neglect when you get busy, but you don’t have to feel bad about it. You can hire house cleaners to do their thing when you don’t have the time.

2. Professional Cleaners Will Do A Deeper Clean

It is not only nice to have the cleaners take over because of the time it will save you, but it is also nice to know they will do good work. A professional service will do a deeper clean than you would do. They will move furniture and do what they need to do to give you a spotless home.

3. You Won’t Be Embarrassed By Your House

When you get your home professionally cleaned, at least occasionally, you won’t have to feel embarrassed about it. When guests come over and see how clean it is they will be impressed. You can have the professionals work before a gathering you host and after so that the house will be spotless and stay that way.

4. The House Will Look Great If You Want To Sell

One of the most important times to hire a professional cleaner is before you want to sell. You want your house to look perfect when you are getting it ready for potential buyers. Don’t try to clean it but let the professionals so that nothing will be missed.

5. House Cleaners Won’t Skip A Step

When you clean the house, you might often leave smudges on your fridge or dirt on the floor. You might skip some of the steps you could take because it gets to be too much. That is why it is nice to hire professionals because they will never skip anything but will give you a nice, clean home.

6. You Can Do Other Things Instead Of Cleaning

When you ask the professional service to take over, it will give you a bit more time each day and week. You won’t be worried about cleaning but can count on them to make the house look great. You will be relaxed and can find a new hobby or feel good about getting various other tasks done around the house.

If you are busy, want a house that is cleaner than ever, or would like to use a cleaning service for any reason, then you can do that. Hire professionals so that the house will not disappoint you with how it looks after the cleaning. Have them come over as often as needed to keep your house looking spotless.

How to Prepare Your Child for Visiting the Child for the First Time

How to Prepare Your Child for Visiting the Child for the First Time

Making a toddler go for their first dental visit is hectic. Babies are extremely frightened about seeing a dentist for the first time. As a parent, you need to sympathize with them to make the event more comfortable.

Taking your baby for a dental checkup early helps prevent dental issues that could occur during their childhood. Renowned dentists have it that kids should have their first dental checkup even before the first tooth comes out. Your first assignment as a parent should be teaching your kid the importance of oral health.

When teaching your child about their bodies, it is essential to mention the tongue and teeth. Explain the role of these parts and how to keep them healthy. Besides, use mobile apps and picture books that help teach kids about the importance of their oral health. Talking about oral health at an early age will make your child’s first dental visit a success.

1.    Stay Positive

According to experienced dentists, parents can pass their dental anxiety to their little ones. Parents who are terrified of dental visits should avoid showing it in front of their kids. If you have had bad experiences during a dental visit, don’t mention them to your little kiddo. Always keep the conversation positive. When taking your child for their first dental visit, remain calm and put a smile on your face.

2.    Read Books and Watch Videos About Going to The Dentist

Kids take dental visits positively when they see their favorite characters calm and happy on a dental visit. There are hundreds of videos about dental visits on the internet. By watching and reading about dental visits, your child will know what happens in the dentistry room.

3.    Talk About It

Letting your little angel know what to expect on their first appointment will help keep tantrums at bay. Sometimes the fear of the unknown can get wild and make them excessively fear seeing a dentist.

Instead of showing up to a strange room without their knowledge, it is wise to tell them in advance. Also, you can take them for a tour in a dentist’s office prior to the appointment day.

Tell them that a dentist helps count their teeth and shows them how to keep their teeth clean and healthy. Answer their questions but don’t talk about future dental procedures.

4.    Play Games

Dentist games help prepare kids for their first dental visit. The games don’t have to be complicated. You can have your kid sit on a chair and pretend to be a dentist. Count their teeth, teach them how to brush and how to smile boldly. Remember to swap roles and let your child play the dentist role with a toy.

5.    Use Positive Reinforcement

If your little angel is scared of visiting a dentist, reassure them that the process is safe and normal. You can offer a lot of positive reinforcement by cheering them up and motivating them to overcome their fear and be brave. Be patient with your child; some children are calm while others cry a lot, which is perfectly normal. Encourage your child to comply better during the next visit.

The above tips will help prepare your child for their first dentist appointment. Frequently remind your kid that a dentist is friendly and will teach them how to keep their teeth strong and healthy.

5 Tips For Booking A Band For Your Wedding

5 Tips For Booking A Band For Your Wedding

Hiring a band for your wedding is, like all the other wedding decisions, not one to take lightly. The band easily becomes the tempo of the party.

Not to fret. Here are five tips to guide you in finding the best wedding band so you can ensure your life of the party is really life in a party.

1- Talk to Your People

Nothing is better than word of mouth. It’s by far the simplest way to get the good, the bad, and the ugly for practically any situation. So, talk to your friends, and ask your friends’ friends too. Pull in the entire support system. If you have fun, modern parents, they might even be able to clue you in on some funky bands with the perfect style you’re looking for. Do not neglect the power of connection.

2- Use Social Media

Say what you want about social media, but it’s the place to go to find anyone doing their thing. What’s more, you might even be able to get a sampling of what a band offers by visiting their company page. These days, any business that wants exposure better use social media, so it’s the best place to seek out a suitable, reputable band.

Hashtags are a great way to narrow your search. Search using hashtags that cater to the type of music you’re into, such as “indie,” “country,” “pop” and add words like “band” “wedding” “dj”. You’re instantly connected to businesses and artists that match your interests.

3- Decide Your Flavor

A DJ’s worst nightmare is probably getting into their own groove only to find out the crowd isn’t into what they do. Do your homework by deciding how you would like to set your party’s mood. You might want your wedding to be a mix of slow jams, old-school tunes, and a little bit of pop.

Once you’re armed with a selection of songs you’d like to hear, you can use them to discuss with the band you find to get an idea if they are willing to accommodate your wishes.

4- Know Your Budget

Have an idea of what you want to spend before you reach out to anyone. Don’t be cheap when it comes to the party. Set your limit, and be prepared to get all the facts before locking in the band.

Know what the band’s total price includes, so there are no surprises. Discuss with the leader what their price includes, and get it in writing!

5- Specify the Details

This tip harps a bit on the last tip, but the emphasis is on the details. Does the band intend to have a break included? Will they play the entire time, or are some playlists allowed to give them a break? What time is show time? When is break-down? You might decide you’d rather have a DJ than a whole band.

Have you been to any weddings recently? How was the vibe? If you remember feeling so good you couldn’t stay in your seat because the music selection was just that good, find out who they booked! Use your connections, use the internet, know what you want first, and speak about the details.

6 Tips For Better Hospital Construction

6 Tips For Better Hospital Construction

It does not take a rocket scientist to realize that hospitals are essential institutions. That is why tips for better hospital construction are sought by everybody involved in the building, renovation, or maintenance of the hospital. Recommendations for better hospital construction can be implemented without much difficulty. The first step is to ensure that the hospital is equipped correctly for a variety of needs. There are specific requirements based on the nature and size of the hospital.

1- Meets All the Daily Needs

If the hospital is dealing with long-term patients, a good facility must handle the daily needs of the patient. These include providing the necessary medical equipment such as infusion pumps and catheters. Electro-Acupuncture machines are another must-have if the hospital is dealing with long-term patients. A hospital should also provide quality hygiene in all its departments. Tips for better hospital construction should focus on these aspects. In addition, the flooring of the hospital should be resistant to germs, bacteria, and viruses.

2- Pristine Electrical System

The electrical system in the facility should also be in top condition. Otherwise, there is no assurance that the patient will have continuity in their medication. Patients should be allowed to move around freely inside the hospital, especially those who need help with mobility. The flooring of the hospital is one aspect that should never be compromised in favor of aesthetic appearance. The flooring of the facility should be non-slip to help avoid accidents.

3- Adequate Lighting

The lighting of the facility is of importance too. Tips for better hospital construction should consider this. The interior design of the hospital is part of the interior design of the entire building. Otherwise, the hospital is not making a statement about the way it treats its patients. Good, warm, and welcoming lighting will enhance the patient’s comfort level and allow them to move around comfortably. The ceiling lights should also be installed for additional safety.

4- Properly Trained Employees

The hospital workers must also be well trained. This includes the doctors and other personnel who deal with the patients day in and day out. They need to be polite, friendly, and professional at all times. Hospital construction and interior designing will only be successful if the staff involved is courteous, social, and professional. If they are not, the facility will lose a great deal of respect from patients and other people.

5- Suitable Waiting Room

Another critical element of hospital design is ensuring that the waiting room is clean and comfortable. Unfortunately, many hospitals put forward waiting rooms that are dark and depressing. They may also have a smell of urine and may be badly organized. Such a hospital will surely lose many patients over time. It may even discourage new patients from trying out the facilities.

6- Proper Emergency Equipment

In the event of an accident, the first aid station and emergency units should be easily accessible. Ideally, these should be located near the operating theatre so that they can be reached quickly. In an emergency, the place where the patients are waiting will also be an area of confusion. Staff should make sure they are located in an easily accessible part of the facility. These should also be close to the hospital beds and laboratories to be accessed immediately.

Tips for better hospital construction give practitioners and other people involved in hospital construction much information to help them achieve their goals. There are many benefits to be had when using quality standards. The patient has much more peace of mind in such a hospital construction than one that is poorly constructed. This, therefore, means better patient care and, of course, a greater chance of survival.

How To Design A Modern Kitchen

How To Design A Modern Kitchen

Modern kitchens are sleek and functional. They are also designed in a way that is safe for families that have babies and young children. It’s no wonder that many first-time homebuyers want to find a modern kitchen before buying a home.

The modern kitchen is also efficient yet versatile in its adoption of natural materials. It has been designed with outlets and lights strategically placed to power all the gadgets a modern home needs. Nothing in a modern kitchen is superfluous. Everything you need to cook or entertain in your kitchen is elegantly installed to fit into the available space.

While there are many possible things to consider when it comes to designing a modern kitchen, here are some ideas on choosing the best layout, cabinets, and counters.

Modern Kitchen Layouts

Besides being used for cooking and eating, your kitchen should serve a wide range of purposes. It’s the place where you do your most important work: setting your goals, creating habits, or setting family meals.

For these reasons, it is possible to consider your kitchen as one of the most important rooms in your home. A kitchen design is not just a place to cook and eat, but it functions as an extension of your formal dining room, with the kitchen island adding convenience and functionality to your home.

Modern kitchens are tall and wide, and they also have lots of counter space. A typical modern kitchen has half cabinets on three sides and a top-loading microwave on the opposite side.

Tables can be in the center of the room or placed on an outside edge with standing legs so that they’re not blocking the way when you walk in. Most countertops have a raised area which helps create a visual focal point for cooking.

If you want to see through the windows, then decide on the best type and size of window your kitchen needs. And if you want convenient seating arrangements for dining, consider installing a properly mounted pullout table that will make serving food faster and easier.

Also, ask a professional to give you ideas on what types of lighting would look good in your kitchen and what contrasting colors will work well together. 

Kitchen design plays an important role in both making a home comfortable and stylish as well as making it more functional. To help you decide on the best design for your home, review pictures of beautifully designed modern kitchens.

Modern Kitchen Cabinets

Kitchen cabinets come in all sorts of designs and are made from a wide assortment of materials.

Sometimes people just like the look of a new kitchen cabinet before they decide to buy it, but it’s also important to take into consideration things like whether the kitchen is in a house or a condo or whether you need cabinets with safety features because you have young children.

If you don’t want a conventional upper cabinet with cabinet doors, then consider replacing them with slatted cabinets. This will improve the quality of light in the kitchen. You may also find it more convenient to use the cabinets without having to open and close their doors.

Modern Kitchen Counters

You can appreciate counter design’s evolution by looking at pictures of old kitchens. Before the upgrade and kitchen counter design with new, sturdier, and easier to clean materials, counters were made from wood and often became rough, scratched, stained, and chipped over time. After that time, they have been continually redesigned over the past 50 years with different trends when it came to the choice of materials.

Today, we have incredible industrial machines to shape contours out of metals or any other sturdy materials. Modern counters also offer wider space. The countertop is an important part of the kitchen that makes it easy to prepare meals. 

To sum up, a modern kitchen makes your home more attractive and functional. When you have guests who want a tour of your new home, they will usually ask to see the kitchen first. It’s the space where your family makes or sits down to enjoy its favorite meals and snacks.

6 Unique Marketing Ideas for Increasing Your Customer Base

6 Unique Marketing Ideas for Increasing Your Customer Base

Perhaps the most important thing a company, both small and large, can do is continue to increase its customer base. However, after doing the same thing over and over, the number of people coming to your store or website can begin to slow down. This is a critical point in every company’s life where they need to look at other ways of marketing their company. Read on to learn about six unique marketing ideas you can begin implementing today to increase your current customer base.

1. Increase & Improve Website Content

If you’re a small company, you understand how important it is to establish a positive reputation for yourself. Reputation is everything as it provides potential and existing customers with the peace of mind that they are shopping within a company that is professional and provides high-quality services/products. However, that can only be achieved by providing them with quality content. Content such as blogs and videos is a great way to become an authority in your industry. This is a lesser-known marketing tactic but one that can be very effective.

2. Create a Pop-Up Shop

If the customers don’t come to you, your business should come to them. This is a trend that has quickly risen in popularity over the years and is even used by the biggest brands in the world. This marketing technique involves setting up a mini-store at city functions or within heavily walked areas of your city. Fortunately, there are a variety of promotional services that offer guides and additional help to ensure that your first pop-up shop promotion goes off without a hitch.

3. Work with Other Companies

Contrary to popular belief, working with other companies is actually a good idea in terms of finding new customers. When you work with a company that compliments your services/product, you get exposed to customers who may not have heard of you. A perfect example of this technique includes a gym working with a supplement store. They do not compete with each other but rather sell complementary services to a similar customer base.

4. Donate Your Time & Resources to the Community

One of the best ways to earn some brownie points with your community is to donate your time or resources during city functions. For example, if your city is having a picnic day, you may have your staff (and yourself) volunteer to direct people to parking spaces or simply help promote the event for the city.

5. Create a Free Trial Program

Your services/products may be the best in the world, but without anyone really testing it out, your business is simply not going to grow. That is why so many companies are investing in creating free trial programs. This could involve everything from giving out free samples to choosing a few people to test out all your products and having them write reviews or be a part of your marketing videos.

6. Redesign Your Packaging

Branding is everything when it comes to business, but there tends to be a common habit of small companies to disregard the design of their shipping package. So, if your shipping packages are the dull brown box with a shipping label on top, redesigning it can potentially lead to an increase in customers. This is because now people will be able to spot your brand in the sea of brown boxes.

As you can see from the information above, there are a plethora of unique marketing ideas that you can begin to implement into your company. So, what are you waiting for? Start auditing everything from your website to your packaging and begin implementing the information above.

4 Interesting Facts about How Access Management Works

4 Interesting Facts about How Access Management Works

Access management is a must-have in companies. It provides the means for controlling who can access what systems and data and defining how users can access those resources. But that’s not to say access management is simple.

There are multiple ways of managing it, and each has its own pros and cons, depending on your needs. Here are a few interesting facts about how access management works:

The different kinds of access management methods are hierarchical, role-based, discretionary, and rule-based.

You may be familiar with some or all of these terms already; if you’re not, here’s a quick overview.

Hierarchical Environment

In a hierarchical environment, users are separated into groups (like departments) that have been assigned different levels of privilege. This method is best for companies with a well-established structure and many different employees with varied roles – think of an emerging tech company, where there are lots of entry-level engineers but only one or two CTOs at most.

Role-Based Access Management

The second kind of access management method is role-based. In a role-based system, user privileges are determined by their job title within the company; for example, an HR employee will have more ability to view employee data than an intern. A major benefit to this strategy is that it allows you to assign specific users certain abilities rather than share capabilities in common.

That makes managing who can do what very simple. Ideally, each person’s responsibilities will match up with their assigned roles, and authorization will be granted systematically. Yet because of the extent to which role-based access management method is dependent on work history, it’s not always feasible – especially if a company is still small.

Discretionary Access Management

Functionality then moves on to discretionary access management, which uses rules to determine who can do what in a system. These are very similar to permissions systems like those seen within file folders; each individual has their own set, and they’re used for specific actions requiring authorization.

Suppose you need employees to authorize their own badge purchases or reimbursements. In that case, this might be your best option – yet this flexibility also makes it more complex than hierarchical access management methods.

Finally comes rule-based access management, which is very similar to discretionary access management. It involves defining rules that govern the actions of users, for example, by determining who can use certain software or whether a transfer can be made electronically. The advantage here is that you have absolute control over the parameters – although this may also expose your business to risk if it’s not implemented well.

Rule-Based Access Management

If you know exactly what kind of delegated access you want in place, rule-based access management may be best for you; yet if your company is still growing, a role-based system with more structure might better suit its needs right now. Either way, though, both allow for some level of customizability while ensuring data and systems are secure and accessible only to those who need them.

The two most basic forms of access management are mandatory and discretionary. Mandatory access management dictates that users must follow a company’s security policy – without it, no one can have network access to any resources.

Discretionary access management is more open-ended; every user has their own set of permissions they can use at will, depending on what work they’re doing and how sensitive the data is. In either case, though, security should be a top priority. An improperly secured system allows for breaches in IT security, which can cost your business serious money down the line due to lost data or downtime – not to mention hurt its reputation as well!

A Look At What Next-Generation Sequencing Is

A Look At What Next-Generation Sequencing Is

The scientific community continually searches for ways of detecting potentially serious illnesses before they strike and precipitate significant illness or even death. One specific action gaining traction is known as next-generation sequencing.

What is Next-Generation Sequencing?

Next-generation sequencing is a form of technology enabling scientists to study genetic components or entire genetic structures like DNA and RNA.

The Process

Next-generation sequencing is completed over a multi-step process including:

Library Construction

The operation’s first phase involves the creation of a sequencing library from the collection of genetic material to be explored. Once the sample has been obtained, said material is divided into sections called fragments. Fragments are then placed in the appropriate sequence. A grouping of sequenced fragments is formerly known as a library.

Clonal Amplification

In order to improve the genetic material’s signal during the sequencing process, aforementioned samples must undergo clonal amplification. Completing this procedure requires each individual library fragment be bound to a solid surface. This enables scientists to create cloned replicas of each fragment.

Library Sequencing

This process is executed using specialized tools and involves stages beginning with the creation of a single strand of genetic material, the detection of a solid base, and concluding with the removal of reactants that could adversely impact said substances or interfere with clinical investigations.

Data Analysis

Next-generation sequencing undertakings result in the accumulation of significant amounts of complex data. The analysis process is divided into three phases, primary, secondary, and tertiary.

Primary analysis is derived from the signals genetic materials give off, which are then processed by specialized equipment and formulated into digital data. Secondary analysis is the stage in which collected information is read, sorted through, and filtered. The final or tertiary leg is where researchers interpret results and offer hypotheses or assertions based on their findings.

Associated Benefits

Since its inception in 2007, next-generation sequencing, which is sometimes abbreviated as NGS, has been highly touted because it provides numerous benefits.

Studying genetic material had been performed prior to NGS. However, such endeavors enabled scientists to only examine small quantities of genetic material at one time. NGS’s advent allows said medical professionals to study and sequence many millions of genetic fragments during the same period.

Such capabilities save the scientific industry time and a great deal of money. The Human Genome Project, which was the first endeavor involving any type of human genetic sequencing lasted for a decade and cost an astonishing $3 billion. NGS allows a single genome to be sequenced in a single day at less than $5,000.

From a practical standpoint, many researchers maintain that NGS will prove revolutionary in finding better treatments and potentially cures to serious, potentially fatal illnesses, such as cancer, diabetes, and mental health disorders. Moreover, said scientific endeavor might also help the medical community find more suitable therapeutics for pathogenic diseases caused by bacteria and viruses.

Who Performs NGS?

Typically, NGS is executed by highly trained scientists like geneticists and bioiformatic specialists. Fortunately, developing technology enables this work to be performed in locations like hospital laboratories and research institutions.